ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization (IEKO)

editor-in-chief: Birger Hjørland (Royal School of LIS, Copenhagen, Denmark)
co-editor and web editor: Claudio Gnoli (University of Pavia, Italy)
authors and editors

alphabetical list of available entries; presentation

Knowledge organization: general and historical issues

  • Discipline and adjacent disciplines: Knowledge Organization (KO); Terminology; Information retrieval; Metaphysics and ontology
  • Movements and bodies: ISKO; Documentation and KO (francophone tradition); Documentation and KO (German tradition); Classification Research Group, UK (CRG); Fédération internationale de la documentation (FID)
  • Biographical articles (non-living persons only): Aristotle; Gesner, Conrad; Linnaeus, Carl; Dewey, Melvil; Otlet, Paul; Bliss, Henry E.; Ranganathan, S.R.; Neelameghan, A.; Farradane, J.E.L; Vickery, Brian; Shera, Jesse; Wilson, Patrick; Lancaster, E.W

Core concepts in KO

  • Theoretical concepts: Bibliographic relation; Category; Classification; Collection; Concept; Discipline; Document; Document type; Genre; Knowledge; Knowledge representation; Literary warrant; Paradigm; Provenance, Relevance; Semantic relations; Sign; Subject (of documents); Subject access point; Theme; Theory; Work
  • Specific document types/genres: Bibliography; Dictionary; Encyclopedia; Monograph; Series; Systematic review; ...

Knowledge organizing systems (KOS)

  • KOS general issues: Knowledge organization system (KOS); Metadata; Functions of KOS; FRBR LRM; Evaluation of KOS; Interoperability; Notation; Alphabetization; Bias
  • KOS kinds: Controlled vocabulary; Classification system; Subject heading system; Keyword system; Thesaurus (for information retrieval); Ontology; Folksonomy; Citation indexes
  • KOS, specific (general/universal): Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC); Library of Congress Classification (LCC); Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH); Universal Decimal Classification (UDC); Colon Classification (CC); Bliss Classification 2nd ed. (BC2); Broad System of Ordering (BSO); PRECIS; Library-Bibliographical Classification, Russia (LBC); Chinese Library Classification (CLC); BISAC subject headings list
  • KOS, specific (domain specific): Periodical system of physics and chemistry; Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT); ICONCLASS; International Classification of Diseases; the Linnaean hierarchy; Medical Subject Headings (MeSH); Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; ...
  • KO in specific domains: Classification in astronomy; Color classification; Fiction classification and indexing; Language classification; Map classification and indexing; Periodization; Picture indexing; Sciences, classification of; ...
  • Standards and formats for representing data: Hypertext system; MARC; Semantic web; Linked open data (LOD); RDF; OWL; SKOS

Knowledge organizing processes (KOP)

  • Cataloging; Subject analysis; Indexing, Social tagging → Folksonomy; Automatic classification; DIKW hierarchy

Methods, approaches & philosophies

KO in different contexts and applications

  • Archival KO; Library classification; OPAC; Museum organization and description; Networked knowledge organization systems (NKOS); Bibliographical databases; Subject gateways; Web archiving

Alphabetical list of available entries

BISAC Subject Headings List
Colon Classification (CC)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
Domain analysis
Integrative levels
Knowledge organization (KO)
Knowledge organization system (KOS)
Literary warrant
Logical division
Mathematical theory of classification 
Reader-interest classifications
Subject (of documents)
Thesaurus (for information retrieval)

New entries are usually listed in ISKO homepage.

This is an online, open access encyclopedia of knowledge organization hosted by ISKO and produced by ISKO Scientific Advisory Council. It will contain entries about concepts, disciplines, organizations, systems, standards, and theories etc. including important domain specific systems.

The encyclopedia is peer reviewed, all articles are signed by author(s), dated and versioned (new versions may be distinguished as, for example, Version 1.1 for minor changes of version 1 and Version 2 for major changes). We try to get articles by the best experts in the subject of each article and to maintain a high scholarly standard. The first accepted version of each article is also published in a section of Knowledge Organization: Reviews of concepts in knowledge organization. A version is also archived in WebCite.

The order in which the articles are published represents the availability and deadlines of authors rather than a priority of what is most important. The plan is that the encyclopedia shall span the field of Knowledge Organization from classical concepts and systems to up-to-date advanced technologies, concepts and issues. For entries listed in dark grey, authors have been assigned; for entries listed in light grey, authors are looked for. Anybody is encouraged to submit proposals for entries or updated versions of existing entries to scient@isko.org. Please conform to the guidelines for contributors. The policy for selecting authors is primarily based on research profiles: to try to get the most qualified authors for each article (i.e. authors that have previously published on the subject).


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